Source: 2013 PDEA Annual Report
Sources: PDEA Press Releases and Newsletters
Drug lords can also win hearts and minds
In Latin America, well known drug lords like Pablo Escobar and Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzmain are local heroes in the areas where they operate, providing various public services (e.g. healthcare, doleouts, jobs, etc) to their communities.
This is essentially “corporate social responsibility” or CSR by drug lords, to soften the impact of their operations, and reduce the threat of local communities cooperating with the authorities.
Recall then how hundreds of people attended the funeral of alleged drug lord Jaguar Diaz of Cebu City recently. And given the poverty and inequality in the country, drug lords are well placed to serve as patrons to many poor and low income families whose allegiance can be secured.
Perhaps it’s not surprising that countries with high inequality and poverty also tend to be prime targets for the expansion of illegal drug operations. Professor Liling Patalinghug of the University of the Philippines analyzed Philippine provincial data from 1979-2008, and found evidence that rising unemployment and stagnant wages are the key factors that exacerbate crime.
If the economy fails to provide decent work for large numbers of unemployed and low-income individuals, then this could also frustrate crime- and drug-prevention efforts.
State and regulatory capture
The other side of narconomics is narcopolitics. Just like businessmen trying to influence or control government in their favor, drug lords could follow the same strategy and try to weaken state efforts to combat the drug trade.
The Latin American experience is replete with examples of how narcos have penetrated the political sphere, such as by financing and supporting politicians, or even fielding political candidates of their own. For instance, in Mexico key government appointments – notably those with oversight over border control and the police – allegedly proved useful for drug cartels in their effort to grow and expand their network into major markets like the US.
In the Philippines, the recent allegations of drug ties in the Philippine National Police, as well as a growing number of drug-related arrests involving local government officials both raise the specter of narcopolitics in the country. Earlier this year, the head of the PDEA reported that up to 200 government officials were allegedly involved the illegal drug trade.
Prisons supply drug lords with fresh recruits
Finally, Narconomics also emphasized how drug dealers faced severe human resource (HR) challenges, given the high staff turnover in the narcotics trade – mostly due to the mortal risks involved. Drug lords in Latin America and the United States have therefore turned to an unlikely source for talent and skills training: prisons.
In this light, lowering the age of criminality in the Philippines to 9 years old should be reconsidered. Throwing children in jail cells with hardened criminals may actually strengthen drug lords’ ability to recruit fresh talent – hardening youth who could have otherwise been saved from a life of crime and drugs.
We will end up strengthening their HR department.
International experience suggests that a whole-of-system approach is necessary to combat the narcotics trade. It requires international cooperation to combat smuggling and interdict drug flows. In addition, we need tighter financial regulatory reforms to make it more difficult to launder drug money and move this across borders. Economic development strategies that provide strong education and produce decent work for millions of young people should also be pursued. Finally, demand side interventions that strengthen community awareness, and assist drug-affected individuals and their families will be critical, in order to save young people from falling deeper into drug dependence.
Ultimately, the most destructive impact of narcotics on our country is through its effects on our next generation of citizens, by weakening them. It would be ironic if the effort to combat crime and drugs sacrifices young people, the very wealth we are trying to protect from this scourge. – Rappler.com
Ronald U. Mendoza is the Dean of the Ateneo School of Government.
*The views expressed in this article are the author’s and do not necessarily reflect those of the Ateneo de Manila University. Jose Carlos Alexis “Bugsy” Bairan provided inputs and research assistance for this article.
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